Triterpenoids are a group of Terpenes (isoprenoids) is defined as terpenoid derviatives of triterpene molecules, including Oleanolic acid found in honey mesquite, garlic, java apple, etc.; Ursolic acid – apples, basil, bilberries, cranberries, elder flower, peppermint, lavender, etc., moronic acid – Rhus javanica (a sumac), mistletoe, etc. and Betulinic acid found in the bark of several species of plants such as birch.
In a study of “Pentacyclic Triterpenes of the Lupane, Oleanane and Ursane Group as Tools in Cancer Therapy” by Melanie N. Laszczyk, © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York, posted in Thieme Ejoiurnals, researchers found in abstract that Triterpene acids as well as triterpene monoalcohols and diols also show an antioxidative potential. The pharmacological potential of triterpenes of the lupane, oleanane or ursane type for cancer treatment seems high; although up to now no clinical trial has been published using these triterpenes in cancer therapy. They provide a multitarget potential for coping with new cancer strategies. Whether this is an effective approach for cancer treatment has to be proven. Because various triterpenes are an increasingly promising group of plant metabolites, the utilisation of different plants as their sources is of interest. Parts of plants, for example birch bark, rosemary leaves, apple peel and mistletoe shoots are rich in triterpenes and provide different triterpene compositions.
2. Colon Cancer
According to the study of ” Triterpenes from Ganoderma Lucidum induce autophagy in colon cancer through the inhibition of p38 mitogen-activated kinase (p38 MAPK)” by Thyagarajan A, Jedinak A, Nguyen H, Terry C, Baldridge LA, Jiang J, Sliva D. (Source from Methodist Research Institute, Indianapolis, Indiana, USA), posted in PubMed, researchers indicated in abstract that
Autophagy is mediated through the inhibition of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK) because p38 MAPK inhibitor, SB202190, induces autophagy and expression of Beclin-1 (1.2-fold increase) and LC-3 (7.4-fold increase), and GLT suppresses phosphorylation of p38 MAPK ( approximately 60% inhibition) in colon cancer cells. Taken together, our data demonstrate a novel mechanism responsible for the inhibition of colon cancer cells by G. lucidum and suggest GLT as natural product for the treatment of colon cancer.
3. Inflammatory response
In a study of ” Suppression of the inflammatory response by triterpenes isolated from the mushroom Ganoderma lucidum” by Dudhgaonkar S, Thyagarajan A, Sliva D. (Source Cancer Research Laboratory, Methodist Research Institute, 1800 N Capitol Ave, E504, Indianapolis, IN 46202, USA), posted in PubMed, researchers found that Apart from its anti-inflammatory activity, GLT suppressed cell proliferation of RAW264.7 cells through cell cycle arrest at G0/G1-G2M, which was mediated by the down-regulation of expression of cell cycle regulatory proteins cyclin D1, CDK4 and cyclin B1, respectively. In conclusion, the anti-inflammatory and anti-proliferative effects of GLT on macrophages are mediated through the inhibition of NF-kappaB and AP-1 signaling pathways.
According to the study of ” Hepatoprotective constituents of Torilis radiata Moench (Apiaceae) by
Ezzat SM, Abdallah HM, Fawzy GA, El-Maraghy SA (Source from a Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy , Cairo University , Cairo 11562 , Egypt), posted in PubMed, researchers found that The hepatoprotection of the AE and its fractions was assessed in terms of the reduction in histological damage, accompanied by restoration of the liver enzymes (alanine amino transferase (ALT), aspartate amino transferase (AST), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH)), a reduction in the inflammatory markers (tumour necrosis-α (TNF-α), nitric oxide (NO), N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase (NAG) and myloperoxidase (MPO) in serum) and restoration of the oxidant balance by decreasing the serum and hepatic malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, along with increasing the activity of hepatic catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GSHPx) and the non-enzymatic antioxidant glutathione (GSH).
5. Breast Cancer
According to teh study of ” Inhibition of Wnt signaling by cucurbitacin B in breast cancer cells: Reduction of Wnt associated proteins and reduced translocation of galectin-3-mediated β-catenin to the nucleus” byDakeng S, Duangmano S, Jiratchariyakul W, U-Pratya Y, Bögler O, Patmasiriwat P. (Source from Faculty of Medical Technology, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand; Department of Neurosurgery, The University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX. Biochem.© 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.), posted in PubMed, researchers indicated in abstract that The relative luciferase activity was reduced when we treated cells with cucurbitacin (tetracyclic triterpenes) B compound for 24 hours. Our data suggest that cucurbitacin B may in part induce apoptosis and exert growth inhibitory effect via interruption the Wnt signaling. J. Cell.
6. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)
In a study of “Celastrol inhibits Tat-mediated human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transcription and replication” by Narayan V, Ravindra KC, Chiaro C, Cary D, Aggarwal BB, Henderson AJ, Prabhu KS. (Source from Center for Molecular Immunology and Infectious Disease and Center for Molecular Toxicology and Carcinogenesis, Department of Veterinary and Biomedical Sciences, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802, USA. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.) posted in PubMed, researchers found that Celastrol (Cel), a triterpenoid MAE isolated from Tripterygium wilfordii, exhibited the highest inhibitory activity against Tat. Using biochemical techniques, we demonstrate that Cel, by covalently modifying the cysteine thiols, inhibits Tat transactivation function. Using circular dichroism spectroscopy, we show that alkylation of Tat brought about a change in the secondary structure of Tat, which inhibited the transcription elongation of the HIV proviral genome by effecting mechanisms other than Tat-TAR (transactivation-responsive region) interaction. Our results demonstrate the underlying mechanism of antiretroviral activity of the plant-derived MAEs and suggest that Cel could serve as a lead compound to develop novel antiviral therapeutics.
7. Antioxidant activities
According to the result of ” Phytochemical screening, antioxidant, and antimicrobial activities of the crude leaves’ extract from Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam? by Pochapski MT, Fosquiera EC, Esmerino LA, Dos Santos EB, Farago PV, Santos FA, Groppo FC. (Source from Department of Pharmacology, Anesthesiology and Therapeutics, Piracicaba Dental School, University of Campinas, Piracicaba, SP, Brazil) posted in PubMed, researchers indicated that triterpenes/steroids, alkaloids, anthraquinones, coumarins, flavonoids, saponins, tannins, and phenolic acids. Total contents of 345.65, 328.44, and 662.02 mg were respectively obtained for alkaloids, anthraquinones, and phenolic compounds in 100 g of the dry sample. The total antioxidant capacity was 42.94% as compared to ascorbic acid. For antimicrobial studies, no concentration of the SP freeze dried extract was able to inhibit the growth of Streptococcus mutans, S. mitis, Staphylococcus aureus, and Candida albicans in both agar disk and agar well diffusion tests.
8. Oral mucosa cancer
According to the result of the study “Study of the extraction process and in vivo inhibitory effect of ganoderma triterpenes in oral mucosa cancer” by Gao Y, Zhang R, Zhang J, Gao S, Gao W, Zhang H, Wang H, Han B. (Source from Stomatology Hospital, Jilin University, Changchun 130021, Jilin, China), posted in PubMed, researchers indicated that Using the optimized extraction process, ganoderma triterpenes could be extracted with high efficiency, and the results of animal tests showed inhibitory effects of ganoderma triterpenes on oral mucosa cancer.
9. Antibacterial activity
In a study of “Jacaranda cuspidifolia Mart. (Bignoniaceae) as Antibacterial Agent” by Arruda AL, Vieira CJ, Sousa DG, Oliveira RF, Castilho RO. (Source from Course of Pharmacy, Department of Biological Sciences and Health, Dom Bosco Catholic University , Campo Grande, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil), researchers found that Phytochemical analysis of JCME and JCCF gave positive results for saponins, coumarins, flavonoids, tannins, quinones, alkaloids, triterpenes, and steroids. Verbascoside was isolated and identified as a major peak in JCME and JCCF high-performance liquid chromatography fingerprints and might contribute to the observed antimicrobial activity.
10. Human T-cell leukemia
According to the study of ” Apoptosis induction through proteasome inhibitory activity of cucurbitacin D in human T-cell leukemia” by Ding N, Yamashita U, Matsuoka H, Sugiura T, Tsukada J, Noguchi J, Yoshida Y. (Source from Department of Immunology and Parasitology, School of Medicine, University of Occupational and Environmental Health, Japan), posted in PubMed, researchers found in abstract that cucurbitacin D was found to inhibit proliferation and to induce apoptosis of T-cell leukemia cells,… Cucurbitacin (tetracyclic triterpenoid) D induced apoptosis through suppression of proteasome activity both in vitro and in vivo, making cucurbitacin D a promising candidate for clinical applications in the treatment of T-cell leukemia.
11. Analgesic and anti-nociceptive
in a study of “Analgesic and anti-nociceptive activity of hydroethanolic extract of Drymaria cordata Willd” by Barua CC, Roy JD, Buragohain B, Barua AG, Borah P, Lahkar M. (Source from
Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, College of Veterinary Science, Assam Agricultural University, Khanapara, Assam, India), posted in PubMed, researchers concluded that DCHE was effective in both non-narcotic and narcotic models of nociception, suggesting its possible action via peripheral and central mechanism. It also abolished the early phase in formalin-induced paw licking model, suggesting complete inactivation of C-fiber at higher dose. The activity can be attributed to the phyto-constituents viz tannins, diterpenes, triterpenes and steroids present in the DCHE extract. In conclusion, DCHE (Drymaria cordata hydroethanolic extract) can be developed as a potent analgesic and anti-nociceptive agent in future.
According to the result of a study of “Anxiolytic effect of hydroethanolic extract of Drymaria cordata L Willd” by Barua CC, Roy JD, Buragohain B, Barua AG, Borah P, Lahkar M. (Source from Department of Pharmacology & Toxicology, College of Veterinary Science, AAU, Khanapara, Guwahati 781 022, India. firstname.lastname@example.org), posted in PubMed, researchers found that Similarly, in elevated plus maze test, there was significant increase in the time spent and number of entries in open arm as compared to the time spent and number of entries in closed arm in dose dependent manner. In light/dark exploration test, another model for anxiolytic activity, the time spent in lit box, number of crossing and the latency period increased significantly with reduction in time spent in dark box after treatment with DCHE. The presence of phytochemicals viz. triterpenes, diterpenes, steroids and tannins might contribute to its anxiolytic activity.
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