Jie Shi or Zhi Shi is also known as immature fruit of bitter orange. The bitter, sour, acrid and slightly cold herb has been used in TCM as diuretics and to raise blood pressure, improve the strength of contraction and tension of the uterus, stimulate the smooth muscle of the digestive tract, treat constipation, cough with abundance of phlegm, etc., as it moves Stomach-Qi and Spleen-Qi, etc., by enhancing the functions of spleen, stomach, and large intestine channels.

Ingredients
1. Hesperidin
2. Neohesperidin
3. Nobiletin, 5-0 -desmethyl nobiletin
4. Quinoline
5. Narcotine
6. Noradrenaline
7. Tryptamine
8. Tyramine
9. Synephrine
10. N-methyltyramine
11. Etc.

Health Benefits
1. Suppressive Effect
In the investigation of the effect of the flavonoids isolated from Citrus aurantium L. native to Korea on the production of pro-inflammatory mediators by blocking signal transduction mediated by nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced L6 skeletal muscle cells, found that the flavonoids isolated from Korea Citrus aurantium L. might have anti-inflammatory effects that regulate the expression of inflammatory mediators in L6 skeletal muscle cells, according to “Suppressive Effect of Flavonoids from Korean Citrus aurantium L. on the Expression of Inflammatory Mediators in L6 Skeletal Muscle Cells” by Kim JA, Park HS, Kang SR, Park KI, Lee DH, Nagappan A, Shin SC, Lee WS, Kim EH, Kim GS.(1)

2. Anti gastric cancer
In the confirmation of Citrus species used in traditional medicine as medicinal herb in several Asian countries including Korea. Flavonioids became known as various properties, such as anti-oxidants, anti-inflammation and anti-cancer, found that Flavonoids isolated from Citrus aurantium L. induced G2/M phase arrest through the modulation of cell cycle related proteins and apoptosis through activation caspase. These finding suggest flavonoids isolated from Citrus aurantium L. were useful agent for the chemoprevention of gastric cancer, according to “Flavonoids Isolated from Korea Citrus aurantium L. Induce G2/M Phase Arrest and Apoptosis in Human Gastric Cancer AGS Cells” by Lee DH, Park KI, Park HS, Kang SR, Nagappan A, Kim JA, Kim EH, Lee WS, Hah YS, Chung HJ, An SJ, Kim GS.(2)

3. Antimicrobial activity
In the investigation on the bioactivity of eugenol, limonene, and citrus extract against three bacteria (Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus brevis, and Bacillus coagulans),
found that Citrus extract was the most effective essential oil, and the results suggested the following susceptibility hierarchy, from the most sensitive microorganism to the most resistant one (values in parentheses represent MICs): S. bayanus (2 ppm) > R. bacarum (3 ppm) > P. membranifaciens (5 ppm) > B. coagulans (cells, 20 ppm) > L. brevis (40 ppm) > L. plantarum (>40 ppm), according to “In vitro evaluation of the antimicrobial activity of eugenol, limonene, and citrus extract against bacteria and yeasts, representative of the spoiling microflora of fruit juices“by Bevilacqua A, Corbo MR, Sinigaglia M.(3)

4. Etc.

Side Effects
1. Do not use the herb in case of Qi deficiency or spleen and stomach deficiency
2. Do not use the Jie Shi or Zhi Shi in newborn, children or if you are pregnant or breast feeding with out approval first with the related field specialist
3. Etc.

For other Chinese herbs in western view, visit http://chineseherbsinnutrientsperspective.blogspot.com/2011/10/chinese-herbs-in-western-view-health.html
For other health articles, please visit
http://medicaladvisorjournals.blogspot.com/

Sources
(1) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22431150
(2) http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2012/515901/
(3) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20501040