Musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) is medical condition mostly caused by work related occupations and working environment, affecting patients’ muscles, joints, tendons, ligaments and nerves and developing over time. A community sample of 73 females and 32 males aged 85 and over underwent a standardised examination at home. Musculoskeletal pain was reported by 57% of those interviewed. A major restriction of joint movement range was frequent in the shoulder but uncommon in other joints. A shoulder disorder was found in 27% of subjects, rheumatoid arthritis in 1% and osteoarthritis (OA) of the hand, hip, and knee in five, seven, and 18% of subjects, respectively. Disability was frequent: a walking distance of < 500 m was found in 60% and ADL dependency in 40% of the group. Factors related to one or both of these disability measures included female gender, hip and knee OA, impaired vision, cognitive impairment and neurological disease(1).
III. Rheumatoid Arthritis
Rheumatoid Arthritis is defined a chronic disorder as a result of inflammation, affecting mostly the flexible (synovial) joints and tissues and organs in the body. The disease affects more women than in men and generally occurs after the ages of 40 and diminishes the quality of life of many elders.
E.2. In herbal medicine perspective
Intake of soy protein can enhance the protective effect against Rheumatoid Arthritis. In the study to evaluate preventive and therapeutic effects of soy protein on collagen-induced arthritis rats, showed that Administration of soy protein significantly suppressed the progression of collagen II-induced arthritis and inhibited the production of tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin6, leptin, and adiponectin. Soy protein appeared to be a potent immunomodulatory inhibitor of collagen II-induced arthritis in rats
2. Green tea
EGCG in experimental animals and findings related to the EGCG-drug interaction. Although these findings provide scientific evidence of the anti-rheumatic activity of EGCG, further preclinical studies are warranted before phase clinical trials could be initiated with confidence for patients with joint diseases(33).
Turmeric (Curcuma longa L., Zingiberaceae) rhizomes contain two classes of secondary metabolites, curcuminoids and the less well-studied essential oils. Dr. Funk JL and research team at the University of Arizona, indicated that Crude or refined TEO extracts dramatically inhibited joint swelling (90-100% inhibition) in female rats with streptococcal cell wall (SCW)-induced arthritis when extracts were administered via intraperitoneal injection to maximize uniform delivery. However, this anti-arthritic effect was accompanied by significant morbidity and mortality. Oral administration of a 20-fold higher dose TEO was nontoxic, but only mildly joint-protective (20% inhibition). These results do not support the isolated use of TEO for arthritis treatment but, instead, identify potential safety concerns in vertebrates exposed to TEO(37).
Ginger (Zingiber officinale) supplements are being promoted for arthritis treatment in western societies on the basis of ginger’s traditional use as an anti-inflammatory in Chinese and Ayurvedic medicine. Dr. Funk JL and scientists at the University of Arizona showed that the crude dichloromethane extract, which also contained essential oils and more polar compounds, was more efficacious (when normalized to gingerol content) in preventing both joint inflammation and destruction(38).
Alfalfa is a flowering plant in the genus Medicago, belonging to the family Fabaceae, It has been cultivated all over the world as hay for cattle feeding. The leaves, sprouts, and seeds to make medicine has been used in traditional medicine over 15010 years to treat high cholesterol, asthma, osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, diabetes, enhance digestive system, bleeding disorder, kidney and urinary tract infection, etc. North Americal aboriginal has used Alfalfa seed as food, such as making bread and mush.
In a study of measurements of pH, water holding capacity, color, oxymyoglobin content, TBARS and oxidation-reduction potential in evaluating the effects of a dietary protein-xanthophylls (PX) concentrate of alfalfa to turkey diets conducted by University of Life Sciences in Lublin, Skromna 8, 20-704 Lublin, Poland.(1), researchers found that TBARS and oxidation-reduction potential values suggested that the inclusion of the concentrate to turkey diets acts as an antioxidant in the raw meat.
b. Disease of autoimmune
In a study of five groups of 12-week-old female mice were per oral treated with vehicle (control), lyophilized AS (550 mg wt/kg BW), ASEA (ASEA, 25 mg/kg BW), coumestrol (CUM, 0.075 mg/kg BW) and tamoxifen (TAM, 0.375 mg/kg BW) as the positive control, conducted by Institute of Microbiology and Biochemistry, College of Life Science, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (4), researchers found that alhalfa decreased the disease severity, increased survival and life span of the autoimmune-prone MRL-lpr/lpr mice, suggesting a potential of ASEA in the treatment of autoimmune diseases.
c. Anti-inflammatory activity
In a study of anti-inflammatory effects may be used for inflammatory disorders by examining alfalfa sprout ethyl acetate extract (ASEA) in ,ice coducted by College of Life Science, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan, Republic of China.(5), researchers found that significantly higher survival rates than the control group and suggests that ASEA supplementation can suppress the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and alleviate acute inflammatory hazards.
6. Grape Seed Extract
Grape Seed Extract is the commercial extracts from whole grape seeds that contains many concentrations, including vitamin E, flavonoids, linoleic acid, oligomeric proanthocyanidins(OPCs), etc..The herb has been used in traditional medicine as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory agents and to treat skin wounds with less scarring, allergies, macular degeneration, arthritis, enhance circulation of blood vessels, lower cholesterol, etc.
a. Antioxidant Activity
in the assessment of phenolic content, antioxidant activity of White and red wines spiked with green tea extract and grape seed extract found that the green tea extract and grape seed extract increased antioxidant activity dose-dependently and the CRTs varied considerably between the Korean and Australian groups, with Koreans preferring wines spiked with green tea extract and Australians showing a preference for wines spiked with grape seed extract, according to “Total Phenolic Content, Antioxidant Activity and Cross-Cultural Consumer Rejection Threshold in White and Red Wines Functionally Enhanced with Catechin-Rich” by Yoo YJ, Saliba A, Prenzler PD, Ryan DM.(60)
b. Arthritis (CIA)
in the examination of whether grape seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE) effect on collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) in mice found that GSPE dose-dependently suppressed osteoclastogenesis in vitro. GSPE significantly reduced hydrogen peroxide production by anti-CD3-monoclonal-antibody-stimulated CD4+ splenocytes. These results indicate that intraperitoneal injection of GSPE attenuated CIA in mice. GSPE may be useful in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, according to “Grape seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE) attenuates collagen-induced arthritis” by Cho ML, Heo YJ, Park MK, Oh HJ, Park JS, Woo YJ, Ju JH, Park SH, Kim HY, Min JK.(61)
7. Ginseng Asia
a. Antioxidant activity
In the evaluation of the extraction conditions of polysaccharides from the rhizomes of Panax japonicus C.A. Meyer and its antioxidant effect found that antioxidant activity exhibited Panax japonicus polysaccharides (PJP) had a good potential for antioxidant, according to “Optimization of polysaccharides from Panax japonicus C.A. Meyer by RSM and its anti-oxidant activity” by Wang R, Chen P, Jia F, Tang J, Ma F.(62)
b. Immunological activities
In the study of Water-soluble ginseng oligosaccharides (designated as WGOS) with a degree of polymerization ranging from 2 to 10 were obtained from warm-water extract of Panax ginseng roots, found that WGOS were potent B and T-cell stimulators and WGOS-1 has the highest immunostimulating effect on lymphocyte proliferation among those purified fractions. It is hoped that the WGOS will be developed into functional food or medicine, according to “Structural characterization and immunological activities of the water-soluble oligosaccharides isolated from the Panax ginseng roots” by Wan D, Jiao L, Yang H, Liu S.(63)
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(58) “Effect of protein-xanthophylls (PX) concentrate of alfalfa supplementation on physico-chemical properties of turkey breast and thigh muscles during ageing” by Karwowska M, Stadnik J, Dolatowski ZJ, Grela ER., posted in PubMed
(59) ” The ethyl acetate extract of alfalfa sprout ameliorates disease severity of autoimmune-prone MRL-lpr/lpr mice” by Hong YH, Huang CJ, Wang SC, Lin BF., posted in PubMed
(60) “Ethyl acetate extracts of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) sprouts inhibit lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation in vitro and in vivo” by Hong YH, Chao WW, Chen ML, Lin BF., posted in PubMed