Musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) is medical condition mostly caused by work related occupations and working environment, affecting patients’ muscles, joints, tendons, ligaments and nerves and developing over time. A community sample of 73 females and 32 males aged 85 and over underwent a standardised examination at home. Musculoskeletal pain was reported by 57% of those interviewed. A major restriction of joint movement range was frequent in the shoulder but uncommon in other joints. A shoulder disorder was found in 27% of subjects, rheumatoid arthritis in 1% and osteoarthritis (OA) of the hand, hip, and knee in five, seven, and 18% of subjects, respectively. Disability was frequent: a walking distance of < 500 m was found in 60% and ADL dependency in 40% of the group. Factors related to one or both of these disability measures included female gender, hip and knee OA, impaired vision, cognitive impairment and neurological disease(1a).
Types of Musculo-Skeletal disorders in elder(2a)
3. Rheumatoid Arthritis
4. Polymalagia Arthritis
5. Cervical myleopathy and spinal canal stenosis
7. Low back pain
I. Gout mostly effected one joint is defined as a acute and recurrent condition of arthritis as a result of uric acid builds up in blood cause of joint inflammation.
V. Diagnosis and test
After taking family history and physical exam together with the examination of joint infected, your doctor may order the following test
1. Blood Test for Uric Acid Levels
The aim of the test is to measure the levels of uric acid. People who have a high levels of uric acid are at increased risk of gout.
2. Urine test
The aim of the urine test is to examine the levels of uric acid produced from the natural breakdown of your body’s cells and from the foods you eat by measuring the amount of uric acid in a sample of urine collected over 24 hours..
3. Synovial fluid analysis
The aim of the test is to examine the joint (synovial) fluid for the the presence of monosodium urate (MSU) crystals for confirmation of gout.
4. X ray
Although X ray is considered helpless in the early stage of gout, in the progressing stage, tophi can be see.
5. Other tests such Computed tomography(CT), magnetic resonance imaging(MRI) and ultrasonography(US)
In the study to determine the usefulness of computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and Doppler ultrasonography (US) in providing specific images of gouty tophi, found that
MR and colour Doppler US images showed the tophi as masses surrounded by a hypervascular area, which cannot be considered as specific for gout. But on CT images, masses of about 160 HU density were clearly seen, which correspond to MSU crystal deposits(8a).
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